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A recent case involving circumvention of antidumping duties highlights the US government’s strategy of using criminal charges in trade enforcement cases. The US government has traditionally enforced its trade laws through customs-related civil penalties (e.g., 19 U.S.C. § 1592), but, of late, it has begun subjecting trade law violators to criminal penalties as well. Moreover, in a sign of the breadth of these prosecutions, the US Department of Justice (DOJ) is coupling these prosecutions with the enforcement of criminal statutes promulgated by non-trade-related agencies that regulate import safety.